Scientific Articles Relating to The Raw Vegan Diet

Toxins In Heated Foods

and other articles of interest to those researching the raw-vegan diet

Compiled by Ekaya Institute of Living Food Education - 12/15/03

Last update - 9/23/08

----

New: Black Raspberries Aid Cancer Treatment:

http://www.worldhealth.net/news/black_raspberries_aid_cancer_treatment

----

New Raw Vegan "Zoo" Study Shows Great Success! A group of volunteers spend 12 days in a zoo eating like the chimps in this medical study! Blood pressure down, cholesterol lowered, and weight lost! BBC reports....

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6248975.stm

----

Bone Density and Raw Veganism....Study finds raw vegans have lower bone density but strong bones.

-----

Acrylamide, toxin found in heated starches/carbs:

http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/103_food.html

http://www.fda.gov/oc/speeches/2002/acrylamide930.html

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/acryplan.html

----

Fried Food – is it safe?

Heating vegetable oil above 300 degrees Fahrenheit damages the oil causing toxin formation.  Heating the oil increases the rate of chemical reactions (oxidation) especially if it is in the presence of air (oxygen) and light. Many toxic products of oxidation occur, including trans fatty acid and other unnatural breakdown products (dimers and polymers etc). Our cells accumulate these toxic product and age more rapidly.

----

FDA Fact Sheet

What Every Consumer Should Know About Trans Fatty Acids

July 9, 2003

http://www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/transfat/q_a.html

FDA declares trans fats dangerous and that trans fats are found in vegetable shortening, some margarines, crackers, candies, baked goods, cookies, snack foods, fried foods, salad dressings, and many processed foods. They also claim that saturated fats and trans fat have bad effects on cholesterol levels. Polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats (such as olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, and corn oil) have good effects. If the ingredient list includes the words “shortening,” “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil” or “hydrogenated vegetable oil,” the food contains trans fat.

-----

http://books.nap.edu/openbook/0309032806/html/277.html


partial text from above URL:

MUTAGENS RESULTING FROM COOKING OF FOODS Benzo[~]pyrene and Other Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons Almost 20 years ago Lijinsky and Shubik (1964) and Seppilli and Sforzolini (1963) reported that beef grilled over a gas or charcoal fire contained a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). Benzo~a~pyrene was found in charcoal-broiled steak in levels up to 8 g/kg (Lijinsky and Shubik, 1964~. The source of the PAM's resulting 13-2
OCR for page 279
Mutagens in Food! 279 from charcoal broiling was the smoke generated when pyrolyzed fat dripped from the meat onto the hot coals. Thus, meats with the highest fat content acquired the highest levels of these chemicals (Lijinsky and Ross, 1967~. When meat was cooked in a manner that prevented expo- sure to the smoke generated by the dripping fat, this source of contam- ination was either reduced or eliminated (Lijinsky and Ross, 1967; Lintas _ al., 1979; Masuda et al., 1966~._ _ PAM's have also been found in a variety of smoked foods and in roasted coffee (Howard and Fazio, 1980~. Vegetables can easily become contaminated by PAM's from air, soil, or water; fish and shellfish can assimilate such chemicals from their marine environments (Howard and Fazio, 1980~. However, unless vegetables or seafood are obtained from highly contaminated environments, the major source of PAR will probably be the smoking or cooking of food. Mutagens from Pyrolyzed Proteins and Amino Acids During the past few years, it has become clear that PAM's account for only a small fraction of the mutagenic (and, therefore, potentially carcinogenic) activity that occurs in foods during cooking. Nagao et al. (1977a) used dimethylsulfoxide to prepare extracts of the charred surfaces of broiled fish and meat. They found that the mutagenic acti- vities of these extracts for histidine-requiring strains of S. typhi- murium were hundreds or thousands of times greater than could be accounted for by the reported benzo~aipyrene contents of these cooked foods. For example, the mutagenic activity of charcoal-broiled beef- steak was the equivalent to that of approximately 4,500 fig of benzo~a]- pyrene per kilogram of steak, even though Lijinsky and Shubik (1964) had reported that charcoal-broiled steak contained no more than 8 fig of this chemical per kilogram. The mutagenic activity in the broiled fish and beef could also be detected in S. typhimurium strain TADS, implying that the agent could induce frameshift mutations (Nagao et al., 1977a; Sugimura et al., 1977~. Positive results in these assays depended on the presence of an _ vitro metabolic activation system utilizing the postmitochon- drial supernatant from homogenized livers of rats pretreated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Bjeldanes et al. (in press, a, b) have re- cently completed a series of detailed studies on the cooking condi- tions under which mutagenic activity is produced in various types of fish, meats (including organ meats), as well as eggs, milk, cheese, and tofu. To determine what constituent or constituents of fish and meat contribute to the mutagenic activity produced by cooking, studies have been conducted to examine the mutagenicity of smoke condensates from various substances. Smoke obtained from pyrolyzed proteins, such as lysozyme and histone, was found to be highly mutagenic to S. typhi- murium, whereas smoke condensates from pyrolyzed DNA, RNA, starch, or vegetable oil were only slightly mutagenic (Nagao et al., 1977b). 13-3



--------


Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk (1989)

http://books.nap.edu/books/0309039940/html/67.html#page_middle

Liver, dark-green leafy vegetables, dry beans, peanuts, wheat germ, whole grains. Ability to utilize folacin depends on the chemical form in food. Losses in cooking and canning can be very high due to heat destruction.

-------

Showing how proteins are changed by heat:
http://www.cast-science.org/cast-science.lh/biotechnology/20001128rooney.htm

----

High School Biology Textbook

AAAS Project 2061 Articles & Reports  
AAAS Project 2061 Biology Textbooks Evaluation

Key Ideas Used for the Evaluation

Topic: Cell Structure and Function

http://www.project2061.org/research/textbook/hsbio/ideas.htm

A change in even a single atom in the DNA molecule can change the protein that is produced.

(and heat changes everything!)

------


From TeacherWeb
The Physics of Heat
Understand how heat affects and changes the molecular structure of things

http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/medalig/Physics/ch%2021%20outline.htm

-----

The Properties of Water
Looking at water from a pure physics standpoint
http://www.bio.gasou.edu/Bio-home/Cutler/Chapter%203%20Notes.htm


------
The Dangers of Microwaving
Contains scientific information that may apply to heating foods in general
http://www.healingdaily.com/microwave-ovens.htm

-----
Food Science and Technology

Most people are unaware that the Food Industry is the largest manufacturing industry in the UK, but this is so. It is an industry, moreover, which is becoming increasingly dependent upon the application of science in order to understand and control raw materials, processes and products.

http://www.intstudy.com/articles/isgap4a11.htm

So, if you are scientifically inclined but don’t wish to study a traditional single science subject and would rather follow a challenging multi-disciplinary subject with good employment prospects, consider food science or food technology.

(Yes, I hope that some raw-vegans will become food scientists and help to initiate testing of raw vs. cooked foods!)

------

Just found out that animal feed manufacturers have to code their products as below:

PROCESS INDICATOR CODE
A - Not heated, pasteurized, cooked or retorted
B - Heated, pasteurized, cooked or retorted
Y - Process unknown or N.E.C.

Another example of the greater care taken in the care, feeding, and breeding of animals than humans!

This chart indicates that they must know that heated foods are bad for animals. Why wouldn't they be bad for humans too? We are both made of "animal cells" which have basically the same structure, as oposed to "plant cells".

------

DR Kodali, D Atkinson, and DM Small
Polymorphic behavior of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-lauroyl(PP12)- and 3- myristoyl(PP14)-sn-glycerols
J. Lipid Res., Oct 1990; 31: 1853 - 1864.

The only study I could find on heating fats, and it is all scientific, lingo hard to understand, but it does show that heat makes radical changes to the molecules in fats.

(PDF file)

http://www.jlr.org/cgi/reprint/31/10/1853?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=
kodali+heat&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1071549793874_1611&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=
0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=1&journalcode=jlr

-------

Scientific Articles Published in Medical Journals

"Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements."
Donaldson MS.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2000; vol. 44, pp. 229-34.
Abstract.

"Vitamin B-12 status of long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet (‘living food diet’) is compromised."
Rauma AL, Torronen R, Hanninen O, Mykkanen H.
Journal of Nutrition, 1995 Oct; vol. 125, pp. 2511-5.
Abstract.

"Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte, platelet, and serum lipids in strict vegans."
Agren JJ, Tormala ML, Nenonen MT, Hanninen OO.
Lipids, 1995 Apr; vol. 30, pp. 365-9.
Abstract.

"An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids."
Peltonen R, Ling WH, Hanninen O, Eerola E.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1992 Nov; vol. 58, pp. 3660-6. Also see comment in: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1993 Aug; vol. 59, pp. 2763-4.
Abstract.

"Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders."
Hanninen O, Kaartinen K, Rauma A, Nenonen M, Torronen R, Hakkinen S, Adlercreutz H, Laakso J.
Toxicology, 2000 Nov 30; vol. 155, pp. 45-53.
Abstract.

"Antioxidant status in long-term adherents to a strict uncooked vegan diet."
Rauma AL, Torronen R, Hanninen O, Verhagen H, Mykkanen H.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1995 Dec; vol. 62, pp. 1221-7.
Abstract.

"Consequences of a long-term raw food diet on body weight and menstruation: results of a questionnaire survey."
Koebnick C, Strassner C, Hoffmann I, Leitzmann C.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 1999; vol. 43, pp. 69-79.
Abstract.

"Effects of a raw food diet on hypertension and obesity."
Douglass JM, Rasgon IM, Fleiss PM, Schmidt RD, Peters SN, Abelmann EA.
Southern Medical Journal,1985 Jul; vol. 78, pp. 841-4.
Abstract.

"Survey of food and nutrient intake of Hallelujah (diet) vegetarians."
Donaldson MS.
Nutrition & Food Science, 2001; vol. 31, pp. 293-303.
Abstract.     Full text (pdf download - requires Adobe Acrobat).

"Raw food eaters: health habits and nutrient intake."
Strassner CB, Doerries S, Kwanbunjan K, Leitzmann C.
Poster presented at the 16th International Congress of Nutrition, 27 July - 1 August 1997, Montreal, Canada.
Full text.

"Vegetarian raw food dietary regimens: health habits and nutrient intake."
Strassner CB, Doerries S, Kwanbunjan K, Leitzmann C.
Poster presented at the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition, 24-26 March 1997, Loma Linda, California USA.
Full text.

"Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients."
Rauma AL, Nenonen M, Helve T, Hanninen O.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1993 Oct; vol. 47, pp. 747-9.
Abstract.

"Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis."
Agren JJ, Tvrzicka E, Nenonen MT, Helve T, Hanninen O.
British Journal of Nutrition, 2001 Feb; vol. 85, pp. 137-9.
Abstract.

"Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using a mostly raw vegetarian diet: An observational study."
Donaldson MS, Speight N, Loomis S.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2001; vol. 1, p. 7.
Abstract.     Full text.

"Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders."
Hanninen O, Kaartinen K, Rauma A, Nenonen M, Torronen R, Hakkinen S, Adlercreutz H, Laakso J.
Toxicology, 2000 Nov 30; vol. 155, pp. 45-53.
Abstract.

"Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms."
Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL.
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 2000; vol. 29, pp. 308-13.
Abstract.

"Uncooked, lactobacilli-rich, vegan food and rheumatoid arthritis."
Nenonen MT, Helve TA, Rauma AL, Hanninen OO.
British Journal of Rheumatology, 1998 Mar; vol. 37, pp. 274-81.
Abstract.     Full text (pdf download - requires Adobe Acrobat).

"Faecal microbial flora and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis during a vegan diet."
Peltonen R, Nenonen M, Helve T, Hanninen O, Toivanen P, Eerola E.
British Journal of Rheumatology. 1997 Jan; vol. 36, pp. 64-8.
Abstract.

"Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients."
Rauma AL, Nenonen M, Helve T, Hanninen O.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1993 Oct; vol. 47, pp. 747-9.
Abstract.

"Dental erosions in subjects living on a raw food diet."
Ganss C, Schlechtriemen M, Klimek J.
Caries Research, 1999; vol. 33, pp. 74-80.
Abstract.

"Some biochemical effects of a mainly fruit diet in man."
Meyer BJ, de Bruin EJ, Du Plessis DG, van der Merwe M, Meyer AC.
South African Medical Journal (also known as Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif), 1971 Mar 6; vol. 45, pp. 253-61.
PubMed record - abstract not available online.

"Some physiological effects of a mainly fruit diet in man."
Meyer BJ, van der Merwe M, Du Plessis DG, de Bruin EJ, Meyer AC.
South African Medical Journal (also known as Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif), 1971 Feb 20; vol. 45, pp. 191-5.
PubMed record - abstract not available online.

"Faecal microbial flora and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis during a vegan diet."
Peltonen R, Nenonen M, Helve T, Hanninen O, Toivanen P, Eerola E.
British Journal of Rheumatology. 1997 Jan; vol. 36, pp. 64-8.
Abstract.

"An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids."
Peltonen R, Ling WH, Hanninen O, Eerola E.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1992 Nov; vol. 58, pp. 3660-6. Also see comment in: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1993 Aug; vol. 59, pp. 2763-4.
Abstract.

"Shifting from a conventional diet to an uncooked vegan diet reversibly alters fecal hydrolytic activities in humans."
Ling WH, Hanninen O.
Journal of Nutrition, 1992 Apr; vol. 122, pp. 924-30.
Abstract.

"Vegan diet in physiological health promotion."
Hanninen O, Rauma AL, Kaartinen K, Nenonen M.
Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 1999; vol. 86, pp.171-80.
Abstract.

"Effect of a vegan diet on biomarkers of chemoprevention in females."
Verhagen H, Rauma AL, Torronen R, de Vogel N, Bruijntjes-Rozier GC, Drevo MA, Bogaards JJ, Mykkanen H.
Human & Experimental Toxicology, 1996 Oct; vol. 15, pp. 821-5.
Abstract.

"Coumarin 7-hydroxylation in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet."
Rauma AL, Rautio A, Pasanen M, Pelkonen O, Torronen R, Mykkanen H.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1996; vol. 50, pp. 133-7.
Abstract.

"Effects of eating an uncooked vegetable diet for 1 week."
Hanninen O, Nenonen M, Ling WH, Li DS, Sihvonen L.
Appetite. 1992 Dec; vol. 19, pp. 243-54.
Abstract.

[Raw food and immunity; article in German]
Gaisbauer M, Langosch A.
Fortschritte der Medizin, 1990 Jun 10;108(17):338-40
Abstract-in English.

 


Research by Ekaya Institute of Living Food Education

email
http://www.thegardendiet.com